The Limits of Limits
Limiting by Location
The location limit is taken from the Holdings record. This is the item's permanent location. If an item is assigned a temporary location, this is done on the item record.
Problem: This could lead to confusing displays when the location in the title list (temp location) is different than the location used for the limit (MFHD location).
Limiting by Language
The Language limit uses the language code in the fixed field. If the item cataloged is multilingual or a translation, multiple codes may be used. The predominant language is entered in the fixed field, others are added in the 041. If predomninance cannot be determined then enter the one that alphabetically comes first.
Problem: When material has multiple languages, this limit could potentially exclude appropiate material.
Limiting by Type and Medium
The MARC record describes the item in hand using the record type (006) and the physical description code (007). Type limit comes form the bib leader/06 and leader/07 combination. The Medium limit comes form the bib 007, first position.
The following limits were taken form the SU limit.ini file.
Language material (ITEM TYPE BOOK) --code as indicates that the content of the record is for non-manuscript language material. Code a is also used for microforms and electronic resources that are basically textual in nature, whether they are reproductions from print or originally produced. M indicates a monogram.
language material (ITEM TYPE SERIAL) --code a indicates that the content of the record is for non-manuscript language material. Code a is also used for microforms and electronic resources that are basically textual in nature, whether they are reproductions from print or originally produced. S indicates a serial.
Archival material--this is an obsolete record type. As of 1994 the mixed material code was used for collections with varying formats. Manuscript paper material is now cataloged as language material coded t.
Printed Music (ITEM TYPE MUSIC SCORE)--code c indicates printed, microform or electronically notated music. Code d would indicate manuscript music of a microform of manuscript music.
Map (ITEM TYPE MAP) --code e for nonmanuscript cartographic material of microform of cartographic material. This code is used for maps,atlases, globes, digital maps and other cartographic items. Code f would indicate it is a manuscript cartographic item of a microfilm of a cartographic item.
Nonmusical sound recording (ITEM TYPE) --recording of nonmusical sounds.
jm= Musical Recording
Musical Sound recording (ITEM TYPE) --recording of musical sounds.
Computer files (ITEM TYPE COMPUTER FILE)--Code m indicates that the content of the record is tfr the following classes of electronic resources: computer software (including programs, games, and fonts) numeric data, computer oriented multimedia, online systems or services. For these classes of aspect. Other classes of electronic resources are coded for their most significant aspect. Material may be monographic or serial in nature. (*This distinction is rather recent. Most websites should now be coded as language material if they are primarily textual in nature. there are still many many records that code them as computer files).
Kit-- (ITEM TYPE LIMIT) the contents of the record contains a mixture of various components issued as a unit and intended primarily for the instuctional purposes.
mixed material (ITEM TYPE LIMIT)--indicates there are significant materials in two or more forms. usually accumulated around the same body.
Medium Limit comes from 007
Map (MEDIUM LIMIT) used for all cartographic material except globes.
Computer file (MEDIUM LIMIT)--indicates the item involves a medium intended to be used or processed by a computer.
Globe (MEDIUM LIMIT)--defined as a model of a celestial body
Projected graphic (MEDIUM LIMIT)-- is defined as a two dimensial representation intended to be projected without motion by means of an optical device, for example, a filmstrip, or a slide.
Microform (MEDIUM LIMIT)--the generic term for any medium, transparent or opaque bearing microimages. a microimage is a unit of textual, graphic or computer generated material that is contained or aperture cards, microfiche, microfilm. microopaques, or other formats and that is too small to be read without magnification. Microforms may be reproductions of existing or graphic materials or they may be original publications.
Nonprojected graphic (MEDIUM LIMIT)- is defined generally as a two dimensional pictorial representation whether opaque (print, photoprint, drawing) or transparent, but not intended to be be projected for viewing (photographic negative)
Motion picture (MEDIUM LIMIT)-- defined as a disc, tape, film. cylander or wire on which sound vibrations have been registered so that sound may be reproduced.
Text (MEDIUM LIMIT)- defined as printed or manuscript language that is accessible to the naked eye.
Video recording (MEDIUM LIMIT)- a recording on which visual images, usually in motion and accompanyied by sound, have been registered. it is designed for playback by means of a television set.
I. In MARC the term VISUAL MATERIALS covers three different forms. three dimensional artifact or naturally occurring object: models, diagrams,games, puzzles, sculptures. Projected medium (code g) indicates that the content of the record is for motion picture, videorecording, filmstrip, slide or transparency, all media intended for projection. Nonprojectable graphic activity cards, charts, collages, computer graphics, drawings, paintings,. posters, technical drawings. When I ran searches using this limit the only material i retrieved were records for Three dimensional artifacts. I am almost positive it does not search for videos.
2. Maps and computer files are both Item type and Medium limits. When you search map as an item type it includes globes, when you search it as a medium, it excludes globes. there is a large difference between Computer file Type limit and the computer file Medium limit. The Computer file Item type is only used for computer software (including programs, games, and fonts) numeric data, computer oriented multimedia, online systems or services. The Computer file Medium limits covers intended to be used of processed by a computer.
3. I ran a search in our database for United as a keyword anywhere and set the MEDIUM limit for TEXT. I came up with 1 record. I can't believed that is an accurate result.
4. I ran a search in our database for United as a keyword and set the Medium limit to Motion Picture. I found one record. it was a videocassette that had been miscatalogued.
5. Atlases used to be cataloged as books, they are now cataloged as maps. To find all atlases you would have to use both Books and Maps as item types.
6. Scores used to be cataloged as books. So to find all scores you would have to use both music Score and book item type.
7. Should we have limits for things we don't actually catalog (like globes. or motion pictures. How do you explain to a patron that The Sound of Music is not a motion picture?).
8. If we had anything cataloged as a manuscript score or manuscript map these would not be retrieved by item type searches.
Limiting by Date
The date limit appears to use the first date in the fixed field. this is an effective limit when there is a single date. There are however many occasions on which there are multiple fixed dates.
1. When the date is uncertain the first date must be entered 19uu
2. When the date is uncertain and there is a range of possible dates, for example, 1900 to 1950. The system interprets this as a work being published in 1900.
3. When there is a reprint date. The first date was the date of the original the second date is the date of the reprint.
4. When the date of distribution/release of the issue and the date of production/recording are different.
5. When there is a date range. ( Often used for archival purposes).
6. In serials and multi part monographs when publication happens over the course of years.
Problem: when there is a multiple date in the fixed field, it appears that the limit only pays attention to the first date. limiting a search to the last ten years would exclude serials and monographs which are still open, but began more than ten years ago.