Code indicating how frequently the course is offered, variations are:

  • S -  Every semester
  • Y - At least 1x  fall or spring
  • E - Even Academic Yr (e.g., 2004-05)
  • O - Odd Academic Yr (e.g., 2004-05)
  • SI - Upon sufficient student interest
  • IR - Irregularly
  • SS - Only during the summer

ANT 100 Selected Topics   SI
Exploration of a topic (to be determined) not covered by the standard curriculum but of interest to faculty and students in a particular semester.

ANT 111  Introduction to Cultural Anthropology   S

Economics, politics, religion, symbolism, rites of passage, developmental cycle, and expressive culture.

ANT 112 (crosslisted with:AAS 112) Intro to African American Studies in Social Sciences   S 
Historical and sociopolitical materials. Approaches to studying the African American experience, antecedents from African past, and special problems.

ANT 121  Peoples and Cultures of the World    3 credits  S
Case studies of global cultural diversity. Exploration of daily life, rites of passage, marriage, family, work, politics, social life, religion, ritual, and art among foraging, agricultural, and industrial societies.

ANT 131  Introduction to Biological Anthropology    3 credits   Y
Biological anthropology subfields; anthropology's relationship to history of science. Evolution theory; mechanisms of evolution; survey of the non-human primates; humans ancestral to modern Homo sapiens; and modern human variation

ANT 141  Introduction to Archaeology and Prehistory   Y  
Survey of the prehistoric past spanning the origins of humankind through the rise of complex societies. Class activities and field trip provide a hands-on introduction to archaeological interpretation.

ANT 145 (crosslisted with:HST 145) Introduction to Historical Archaeology   Y
Role of history and archaeology in our understanding of 17th- to 19th- century Europe, Africa, and America. Historical archaeology as a mechanism to critique perceptions of the past. Firsthand record ethnic groups and cultural settings not recorded in writing

ANT 185  Global Encounters: Comparing Worldviews  and Values Cross-Culturally  Y 
Predominant views of reality and values in the cultures of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Humanistic study of cultures and the nature of cross-cultural understanding.

ANT 200  Selected Topics  SI
Exploration of a topic (to be determined) not covered by the standard curriculum but of interest to faculty and students in a particular semester. 

ANT 202 (crosslisted with:LIN 202) Languages of the World  Y 
Introduction to Universal Grammar. Similarities and differences in structures of human languages. Syntax and morphology. Theory development. 

ANT 221 (crosslisted with:REL 221)Morality and Community  O 
Examines how globally diverse religious groups create distinct moral systems in order to provide their members with the feeling of belonging to unique and meaningful communities.  

ANT 249 Archaeology at the Movies: The Scientific Study of the Past in Popular Culture  Y
Introduction to modern archaeology and the scientific study of the past. Utilizing fictional portrayals of archaeological interpretation in popular culture the course examines some of the major research question of modern anthropology. 

ANT 270  Experience Credit  S  
Participation in a discipline-or subject-related experience.  Students must be evaluated by written or oral reports or an examination.  Limited to those in good academic standing. 

ANT 273 (crosslisted with:REL 244, NAT 244)  Indigenous Religions  E 
 The connections between material life and religious life in cultures throughout the world. The diverse ways that various cultures inhabit their landscapes.

ANT 290  Independent Study   S
In depth exploration of a problem or problems. Individual independent study upon a plan submitted by the student. Admission by consent of supervising instruction or instructors and the department. 

ANT 300 Selected Topics  SI
Exploration of a topic (to be determined) not covered by the standard curriculum but of interest to faculty and student in a particular semester. 

ANT 311  Anthropological Theory   S  
Introduction to anthropological theory focusing on the insights and perspectives the discipline brings to historical and contemporary social issues, including fundamentalism. Required for majors.

ANT 318  African Cultures   IR 
Selected contemporary African cultures. West Africa and the impact of the slave trade. Aspects of colonialism and neocolonialism and their relationships to current social and political developments.

ANT 322 (crosslisted with:LAS 318) South American Cultures   Y 
 Archaeology and cultural history. Racial, linguistic, and cultural areas from 1492 to today. Studies of contemporary Indian and Mestizo populations.

ANT 323 (crosslisted with:NAT 323) Peoples and Cultures of North America   IR  
Racial, linguistic and cultural areas of North America from the Rio Grande to the Arctic. Selected areas and tribes. Data from archaeology, historical records, and contemporary anthropological fieldwork.

ANT 324 (crosslisted with:SAS 324, WSP 3234) Modern South Asian Cultures   SI 
Societies of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Social organization, economic and political structures, religions and worldview, survey of languages, the arts. Transition and modernization, rural and urban problems. 

ANT 325  Anthropology of American Life in Film   Y
Analysis of American culture using film and literature. Concept of ‘national character.’ Major cultural configurations and themes.

ANT 326 (crosslisted with:WGS 327) Africa Through the Novel   IR 
Cultural, political and social life of Africa and Africans through African literature. Each semester deals with a motif (e.g., novels of Achebe).

ANT 327 Anthropology of Race in Latin America and the Caribbean    IR
History of racial ideologies in Latin America and the Caribbean; interactions of racial ideologies with self concepts and life chances; racial ideologies' shaping of expressive culture and religion; antiracism movements and legislation; race and transnational migration.

ANT 343 The Maya: Ancient and Modern   E
This course provides an introduction to the history and culture if the Maya; from the deep past to the modern world. 

ANT 346 Gender Through the Ages    IR
The study of gender in archaeology from the late Stone Age to Modern era.

ANT 348  History of Archaeology    IR 
Tracing the discipline's origins with the Renaissance dilettante. Brief survey of scientific and quantitative methods.

ANT 352 Food, Culture and Identity    S   (OFFERED IN LONDON ONLY)
Introduction to a variety of critical approaches; questions about power and representation; role of food in construction of identity. 

ANT 355 (crosslisted with:SOC 345) Spanish Society and Pop Culture   S  (OFFERED IN MADRID ONLY)
Explores what is considered important, good and fashionable in Spain today and how these values relate to historical developments as well as foreign influences.  

ANT 356  Applied Anthropology     IR 
Describes past and present uses of anthropology in social policy. Examines the discipline’s role in addressing global issues such as economic development, environmental degradation, indigenous rights, refugees and health care. Careers in non-academic settings.

ANT 357  Health, Healing, and Culture   O
Crosscultural perspective on illness, health, medicine, and the body; medical pluralism; biomedicalization; illness and moral reasoning; local and global political economies of health and healing; globalization and medicine. Applied medical anthropology.

ANT 358 Peace, War and Security    E
Anthropology of peace, war and security examining the biological basis for war, archaeology of early warfare, effects of colonial expansion among indigenous people and postcolonial society, contemporary peacekeeping, and humanitarian intervention.

ANT 363 (crosslisted with: WSP 363)  Anthropology of Family Life    Y 
Historical and cross-cultural study of forms of family and domestic organization, marriage, status and sex roles, ideals, and customs of family life.

ANT 365  Sexual Attraction in Cross-cultural Perspective   E
Sexual attractiveness across cultures. Cultural differences as well as cultural universals.

ANT 367 (crosslisted with:WGS 367, GEO 367) Gender in a Globalizing World   IR 
Economic and cultural processes of globalization as they affect different groups of men, women, and households; including gender and work, gender and the media, and redefinitions of masculinity and femininity across the globe.

ANT 373  Magic and Religion   S
Crosscultural study of magical and religious behavior, ritual and belief systems in simple and complex societies. Specialists and their craft: Shamans, priests. Curing, possession, witchcraft. Millennial and counterculture movements. Religious ideologies and innovations.

ANT 376 Folklore   SI
Folklore as a cultural system expressing the value orientations of nonliterate, illiterate, and minority populations.  Various genres of  folklore (myth, song, art) and the folklore of several specific societies.

ANT 377  Quilts and Community   E
Explores role of quilts and quilting communities. Discussion, films, exploration of quilts and their makers-and communities that result. Class learns quilt making process. No sewing experience required.

ANT 380 - International Course 
Offered through SUAbroad by educational institution outside the United States. Student registers for the course at the foreign institution and is graded according to that institution’s practice. SUAbroad works with the S.U. academic department to assign the appropriate course level, title, and grade for the student’s transcript.

ANT 381 Ancient Rituals and Beliefs in Modern Spain    Y  (OFFERED IN MADRID ONLY)
From Paleolithic and Neolithic settlements of the Iberian Peninsula to modern immigration into Spain.  This course examines the complex layering of ancient belief systems in a modern country, using Spain as a laboratory.

ANT 382 (crosslisted with:HTW 382, MES 382) Health in the Middle East    IR
Surveys major cultural, biological and environmental features of the Middle East and relates them to aspects of health including infectious disease, chronic disease, reproductive health, population, war, poverty and globalization. PRE-REQ: ANT 111 OR ANT 121. 

ANT 400  Selected Topics   SI
Exploration of a topic (to be determined) not covered by the standard curriculum but of interest to faculty and students in a particular semester. 

ANT 402 (crosslisted with:HST 422) Ethnic History of Britain  S  (OFFERED IN LONDON ONLY)
Examines the ways in which migration has shaped and reworked British national identity over the past two thousand years through the study of original historical sources, literature, film and music, and explores the contributions that migrants have made to modern British society.

ANT 403 (crosslisted with:HST 443) Culture, Confucianism and Chinese Modernity    Y (OFFERED IN BEIJING ONLY)
Contemporary China from historical and cultural perspectives. Exploration of political and ideological conflicts between China and the West. Patterns of Chinese culture. Impact of Confucianism on Chinese society and its influence outside of China

ANT 404 (crosslisted with:HST 404, WGS)  Family and Gender in Renaissance Italy  (OFFERED IN FLORENCE ONLY) 
Historical and interdisciplinary exploration of life stages, rites of passage, marriage, family, social life, sodomy, prostitution, career options, and alternate life strategies as illustrated by case studies.

ANT 405 (crosslisted with:GEO 405) Conservation and Management Protected Areas: South Africa - OTS    IR  (Taught in South Africa through the Organization for Tropical Studies program) 
 Analyze management of wildlife and natural resources within ecological, political, social, historical, and economic context of South Africa.

ANT 406 History and Culture of South Africa - OTS  (Taught in South Africa through the Organization for Tropical Studies program) 
Human history of South Africa. Range of cultural, social aspects of current South African society.
Origin and maintenance of cultural diversity of region, archaeological records, early migration patterns.

ANT 407 Environment and Policy in the Tropics - OTS    (Taught in Costa Rica through the Organization for Tropical Studies program) 
Issues conservation biology and policy: habitat degradation and fragmentation, design of nature reserves, land-use planning, agro ecosystems, environmental economics, and conservation ethics.

ANT 408 (crosslisted with:HAST 408, WGS) The Practice of Eros: A History of Sexuality in Europe (1400-1800)
Authorized and "alternative" sexuality in Europe 15th to 18th centuries (especially Italy, France, and England) "Licit love" (courtship, marriage, conjugal relations) as opposed to "illicit unions" (adultery, rape, prostitution, bestiality, homosexuality, lesbianism). Offered only in Florence.

ANT 409 (crosslisted with:HST 409, REL 409, WGS 409) A History of Witchcraft  (OFFERED IN FLORENCE ONLY) 
History of witchcraft from various perspectives: its intellectual roots, the causes and dynamics of the witch-hunt, and the beliefs and self-perceptions of those who were called "witches". Offered only in Florence.

ANT 414  Cities, Spaces and Power  O    (SOMETIMES OFFERED ABROAD) 
Processes of urbanization, migration, adjustment of peasants in cities, ethnic and cultural variation in urban areas. Cultural differences in industrial development. Uses of applied anthropology in urban situations. 

ANT 415  Culture and Personality   IR 
The person-in-culture and the function of culture in personality formation. Cross-cultural problems of child-rearing, learning and education, life-cycle patterns, cultural conditioning, normality and deviance. The individual and cultural milieu.

ANT 416 Political Anthropology   IR  
Social power in the global political economy. Co-existence of various emergent and residual social formations, such as tribe, peasant, and state. Conflicts over identities in terms of nationality, gender, ethnicity, race and/or class.

ANT 417  Economic Anthropology   IR 
Survey of primitive modes of production: Major adaptive strategies (collecting, hunting, horticulture, and pastoralism), division of labor, and ecological influences impinging on these productive techniques. 

ANT 421 (crosslisted with:SAS) Gender and Sexuality in South Asia    O
Topics explored relating to gender and sexuality include: colonialism; nationalism; development; globalization; kinship; the life cycle; caste and class; religion; same sex/ "third sex" identities.  Additional work required of graduate students.

ANT 422 (crosslisted with:HOA 303) Etruscans and Romans: Ancient Art and Society in Italy  Y   (OFFERED IN FLORENCE ONLY)
Explores art and society of ancient Italy from ca. 1000 B.C. to A.D. 138, with special emphasis on the early Etruscans through Rome under Hadrian.
PREREQ: ANY HOA 100-499  

ANT 423 (crosslisted with: LAS 423) Effedct of Globalization i Latin America     O
A grassroots view of major transformations in Latin America due to globalization/global change, including adapations to global warming, effects of and reactions to neo-liberal policies, internal and international migration, ethnic movemnets and social revolutions. 

ANT 424  Negotiation: Theory and Practice   Y
Negotiation skills for resolving differences effectively and achieving mutually satisfying outcomes. Position based versus interest based negotiation. Advanced techniques of communication such as chunking, reframing, anchoring, metaphor and rapport to obtain negotiation outcomes of excellence. Additional work required of graduate students.

ANT 426 (crosslisted with:  SAS 426) Cultures and Politics of Afghanistan and Pakistan   E
Introduction to Afghanistan and Pakistan, recent histories, cultures, current politics.  Covers geography, religious systems, gender roles, economic systems, foreign policy issues, refugees, migration.  Additional work required of graduate students.
ANT 427 Brazil: Anthropological Perspectives  IR
History and culture of Brazil; indigenous populations; Afro-Brazilians; race and ethnic relations; development; kinship; gender; religion; urbanization; politics; nationalism; globalization. Additional work required of graduate students

ANT 428 Transformation of Eastern Europe    IR
Change and continuity after the demise of communism as experienced by ordinary citizens. Transformations in agriculture, industry, social, and political institutions; the rise of ethnic nationalism; and ethnic conflict.

ANT 429  Cultures of the Iberian Peninsula     Y (OFFERED IN MADRID ONLY - ONLY TAUGHT IN SPANISH)
A general cultural introduction to the peoples who populated Spain and Portugal. Emphasis on those living in the Iberian Peninsula before Roman and Carthaginian settlements and their influence on future generations. Field study tours to archaeological and historic sites. 

ANT 431 - Human Variation  IR
Genetics as applied by anthropologists to humans. Description of the genetic systems most commonly studied. Descriptions of polygenic, polymorphic mvariations and the methods by which theya re gathered.

ANT 433  Human Osteology    E 
Introduction to methods and techniques in human osteology and anatomy (emphasis varies), which are basic in applied physical techniques involving measuring humans (anthropometrics). Some statistical analysis taught.

ANT 434 Anthropology of Death  E
Survey of the many ways how death has entered into the work of archaeologists, bioanthropologists, ethnographers, and social theorists. 

ANT 436  Bioarchaeology  E
Surveys the application of skeletal biology and archaeology to the medico-legal field. Techniques of analysis, interpretation, and evaluation will be emphasized, and domestic and international case studies will be used to illustrate application.

ANT 438  Beyond the Biological Need to Eat: The Archaeology of Food   E
What does it mean for something to be good to eat? Survey of anthropological and archaeoloical perspectives on how culture, politics, and power inform what and how we wat. Additional work required of graduate students. 

ANT 439 (crosslisted with: EAR 407) Climate Change and Human Origins   O
This course considers the influence of long term climate chandges on hominid evolution and human adapatition, as well as how abrupt climate events and transitions may have impacted the distribution of human populations, the development of agriculture, human conflict and societal change. Additinal work required of graduate students. 

ANT 442  Methods in Archaeology    O
Formulation and conduct of archaeological research with a focus on field and laboratory methods used to obtain and analyze data. Survey techniques, excavation strategies, archaeological classification, and data base management.

ANT 443  Field Methods in Archaeology   SS 
Supervised training in excavation of prehistoric archaeological site, including cataloging and accessioning of artifacts.

ANT 444  Laboratory Analysis in Archaeology    E  
Introduction to archaeological materials analysis, artifact-classification systems, processing of data, materials analysis (ceramic, lithic, etc.). Conservation and curation of collections.

ANT 445  (crosslisted with: NAT 445) Public Policy and Archaeology  IR 
Proactive critique of public policy and implementation efforts to preserve and protect archaeological and historical sites and resources.

ANT 446 Caribbean Archaeology     IR  
Caribbean archaeology from the region’s early prehistory through the historic period. Cultural diversity, indigenous societies, Hispanic and colonial impacts, and the African Diaspora.

ANT 447 (crosslisted with NAT 447) Archaeology of North America   IR
Introduction to the regional prehistory of North America north of Mexico, from the late Pleistocene until European contact. Adaptation of prehistoric human populations to their ecosystems. Additional work required of graduate students.
PREREQ: ANT 141  OR ANT 145 

ANT 449 World Heritage Sites   E
Introduction to the regional prehistory of North America north of Mexico, from the late Pleistocene until European contact. Adaptation of prehistoric human populations to their ecosystems.

ANT 450 Undergrad Research Program     S

ANT 452 Anthropology and Public Policy     IR  
Cultural aspects of the development and implementation of public policy. Emphasizing decision-making methodologies and ethnographic studies of the consequences of implemented policies.

ANT 453 - Poverty, Policy, and Human Services      IR
National programs and local interventions that address poverty related social conditions in Syracuse and Onondaga county. Field study of current policies and practices in government and in health, education, and human services agencies. Additional work required of graduate students.

ANT 455 (crosslisted with: WGS 455) Culture and AIDS    IR  
Relationship between AIDS and cultures in which it spreads. Cultural practices and sexuality and social effects of widespread AIDS, including healthcare in Asia, Africa, Latin America and USA.

ANT 456  (crosslisted with:NAT 456) Representations of Indigenous Peoples in Popular Cultures   IR
Contested images used by colonizers and other non-indigenous people to represent Native Americans and other indigenous peoples. How indigenous people represent themselves in different types of media.

ANT 458  Anthropology of Social Change   Y    (OFFERED IN MADRID ONLY) 
Introduces the basic concepts used by anthropologists to study change. Cultural heterogeneity of people of the Iberian peninsula, used as a means to understand social and cultural change in contemporary Spain and Portugal. Some themes examined include culture contact and acculturation, planned and nondirected change, and role of individual.  

ANT 459 (crosslisted with:NAT 459)  Contemporary Native North American Issues    IR  
Contemporary issues including federal Indian Policy, population controls, fishing rights, religious freedom, land disputes, gaming, repatriation, environmental colonialism and Native American artistic response.

ANT 461(crosslisted with NAT 461)  Museums and Native Americans   IR  
The contested relationships among Native North Americans and Museums from earliest contact until the present. Topics include: “salvage” ethnography, collecting practices, exhibition and recent shifts in power.

ANT 462 (CROSSLISTED WITH htw 462, wgs 462)  Culture and Reproductive Health and Medicine   IR
Impact of globalization, biomedicalization, international development on reproduction and reproductive health. Medical anthropology and gender studies.

ANT 463 Global Health   IR
Health in anthropological perspective.  Examines how culture affects people's experiences and response to morbidity and morality.  Considers topics like gender and health, reproductive health, infectious disease, health and inequality and health and war.

ANT 465 Critical Issues in Medical Anthropology     O 
Critical aspects of health care delivery in the United States. Curing in primitive societies. Problems of introducing Western medicine to other cultures. Permission of instructor.

ANT 466 Culture and Sexual Behavior    IR 
Crosscultural patterns of dating and courtship, sexuality, marriage, fertility, and divorce from biosocial and medical perspectives. Additional work required of graduate students.

ANT 467 Culture and Mental Disorder    E  
Mental disorders viewed as illnesses or social constructions. Crosscultural variation and universals. Western and non-Western methods of treatment. Additional work required of graduate students. 

ANT 468 (cross listed with: IRP 468, MES 468) Middle East in Anthological Perspective   IR
Anthropology of the social, cultural, geographical, and political realities of the Middle East.

ANT 469 Medical Anthropology in Ecological Perspective    O
Interaction of biological and cultural factors in disease causation, diagnosis, and treatment in Western and non-Western societies. Introducing Western medicine to non-Western cultures. Additional work required of graduate students.

ANT 470  Experience Credit    S
Participation in a discipline or subject relatedd experiience. Students myst be evaluated by written or oral reports or an examination. Limited to those in good academic standing

ANT 471 (crosslisted with: REL 471) Religion and Society in Brazil    IR
Role of religion in society; religions of Brazil, including Catholicism, liberation theology, afro-religions. Spring break field stay in Rio de Janeiro; methods of study; preparation of research proposal.  

ANT 472 (crosslisted with: LIN 472, WGS 472)   Language, Culture and Society    Y  
Crosscultural survey of the role of language in culture and society, including cognition and language usage along the dimensions of class, gender, race, ethnicity, and social status. Prereq. for ANT/LIN 472: anthropology or linguistics majors with senior standing.

ANT 473 - Peace and Conflict in the Balkans: Anthropological Perspectives    IR
Introduction to Balkan histories, cultures, and societies. Topics include ethnic nationalism, the wars of Yugoslav dissolution, effects of international humanitarian interventions on everyday life, and politics of reconciliation and reconstruction. Additional work required of graduate students.

ANT 475  Culture and Disputing   IR 
Explores modalities of disputing, dispute resolution, and conflict management in cross-cultural perspective. Decision making in meetings and organizations, negotiation, mediation, inter-cultural negotiation, and third party interventions. Ethnographic materials are drawn from many cultures. Prereq: ANT 477/677 or permission of instructor.

ANT 476  Women, War and Peace  E 
Ways in which folklore (oral and material traditions, including personal narratives), reflects key cultural ideas such as gender, ethnicity, and history. Analytical methods for examining fold traditions.  

ANT 477  Culture and Conflict   IR 
An overview of conflict in cross-cultural perspective. Covers a variety of approaches to using cultural analysis in the study of conflict and reviews case studies of specific conflicts. 

ANT 479  Anthropology of Global Transformations   IR 
Impact of global processes, including industrialization, capitalist expansion, transnational migration, environmental change, and international tourism on the daily lives of men and women in Third World contexts.

ANT 481  Ethnographic Techniques   O 
Research methods and techniques in cultural anthropology. Participant observation, interviewing, establishing rapport, recording field data, use of photographic and recording equipment, etc. Also offered regularly abroad.

ANT 482  Life Histories / Narratives   IR 
Evaluation of personal narratives (fieldwork memoirs, reflexive writing), oral histories and testimonials of respondents, a means of personalizing ethnographic discourse, giving more direct voice to respondents, and increasing multivocality. Issues of reflexivity, subjectivity, authority.

ANT 483  Social Movement Theory   IR 
Theoretical approaches to analysis of social movements including Marxist and other Utopian traditions of social analysis, rational choice and resource mobilization models, new social movement theory, and Gramscian analysis of power and resistance.

ANT 484  Social Movement Research Methods   IR 
A range of research methodologies relevant to the study of social movements. Stimulates critical thinking about these methodologies’ ethical implications. Students develop proposals for projects carried out the following semester. 

ANT 490  Independent Study  S
Exploration of a problem, or problems, in depth. Individual independent study upon a plan submitted by the student. Admission by consent of supervising instructior(s) and the deparment. 

ANT 494 (crosslisted with:AAS 4343, HST 434)  Underground Railroad   SI
Myth and history of the Underground in the context of African American freedom efforts. Emphasis on events, personalities, and sites in Upstate New York. Student field research and exploration of archival and Internet resources.

ANT 495 Research for Distinction in Anthropology  S
Research and background study in preparation to writh a capstone "Distinction" paper. The project will involve significant library and/or field work under faculty supervision/ GPA requiremnet and faculty approvals needed.  

ANT 496 Distinction in Anthropology  S
Distinction paper: Advanced research under the supervision of a faculty supervisor. The capstone "Distiction in Anthropolgy" paper involves signifcant library and/or field work. GPA requirements and faculty approvals needed. 

ANT 499 Honors Capstone Project    SI
Completion of an Honors Capstone Project under the supervision of a faculey member. 
Repeatable 2 times

ANT 553 (crosslisted with:WGS 553) Women and Social Change   E
Function of changes in women’s roles in sociocultural urbanization, revolution, and modernization. Women in Third World countries compared to women in industrialized countries.

ANT 571(crosslisted with:LIN 571, SOC 571) Topics in Sociolinguistics   SI
Functions of language in society. Geographical, socioeconomic, and male-female differentiation. Functions if various types if speech events.

ANT 574  Anthropology and Physical Design   E 
Interrelationship of social and spatial organization in traditional and modern societies. Nonverbal communication: use of space, territoriality, and impact of physical design on human behavior.

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